About NBA


Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA):


Individual health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal & food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases. Government of India started the Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP) in 1986 with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women. CRSP was restructured in 1999, following which, a demand responsive community led “Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)” was introduced which emphasizes more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness and demand generation for sanitary facilities. This program is being implemented under direction of Government of India (Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development). Encourage by the success of NGP, the TSC has been renamed as "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" from 01/04/2012.

The main objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach.

The Government of India has issued new Guidelines in August, 2012 which can be downloaded from http://www.mdws.gov.in


The main objectives of the NBA are as under:

1. Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.

2. Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all GPs in the country attaining Nirmal status.

3. Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions, promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.

4. To cover the remaining schools not covered under Serva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Aanganwadi Centers in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertaken proactive promotion of hygiene education and sanitary habits among students.

5. Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.

6. Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.


The strategy is to transform rural India in to 'Nirmal Bharat' by adopting the 'community led' and 'people centered' strategies and community saturation approach. A "demand driven approach" is to be continued with emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in housed, schools and for leaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the community needs. The provision of incentives for individual household latrine units to the poorest of the poor households has been widened to cover the other needy households too so as to attain community outcomes. Availability of water in the GPs shall be an important factor for sustaining sanitation facilities created. Rural School Sanitation remains a major component and an entry point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Wider technology options are being provided to meet the customer preferences and location-specific needs. Intensive IEC Campaign is the corner stone of the program involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, ASHA, Anganwadi workers, Women Groups, Self Help Group, NGOs etc. A roadmap for engagement of corporate houses is being introduced. More transparent system involving social audit and active people's participation in the implementation process of NBA is being introduced. Convergence with MGNREGS shall also be important to facilitate the rural households with fund availability of creating their own sanitation facilities.


  • Start-up activities- The start-up activities include conduction of preliminary survey to assess the status of sanitation and hygiene practices, Baseline Survey (BLS), Orientation of key personnel at the District/GP level and preparation of State Plan.
  • IEC activities- Information, Education and Communication are important components of the program. These intend to create demand for sanitary facilities in the rural areas for households, schools, Aanganwadis, Balwadis and Community Sanitary Complexes. It is not a one time activity. IEC strategy and plan is implemented not just to create demand but also for use, maintenance and up gradation, so that sanitation and hygiene become an integral part of rural life and thereby sustainable. The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and State is in the ratio of 80:20.
  • Capacity Building-This component is for training of VWSC and PRI members, block and district functionaries and grass root functionaries like ASHA and other health, education and related functionaries, Aanganwadi workers etc. SHGs can be trained in trades such as masonry work, brick-making, toilet pan making and plumbing etc as also for awareness raising activities. NGO/CBOs of repute can be engaged for this activity. State Resource Centers and Regional/District Resource Center should be identified for conducting such trainings. The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and State is in the ratio of 80:20.
  • Construction of Individual Household Latrines-A duly completed household sanitary latrines comprises of a Basic Low Cost Unit with a super structure. Incentive is provided to the BPL families/identified APLs for construction of one unit of IHHL shall be Rs 4,600.00 (Rs 5,100.00 for hilly and difficult areas). The incentive given to the BPL by the GoI is Rs 3,200.00 (Rs 3,700.00 in hilly and difficult areas), the State Govt. incentive is Rs 1,400.00. Minimum beneficiary share shall be Rs 900.00 in cash or labor. State Government is allowed the flexibility to provide higher incentive for a household toilet, of the same or higher unit costs from their own funds. All houses constructed with the central or/ and state assistance should invariability have suitable.
  • Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centers- It is an outlet dealing with the materials, hardware and designs required for the construction of not only sanitary latrines but also other sanitary facilities, such as soakage and compost pits, vermi-composting, washing platforms, certified domestic water filters and other sanitation and hygiene accessories required for individuals, families and the environment in the rural areas.
  • Community Sanitary Complex - These comprising an appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, washbasins etc. can be set up in a place in the village acceptable to women/men/landless families and accessible to them. Maximum unit cost prescribed for a community complex is upto Rs 2.00 lakh. The sharing pattern amongst GoI, State Govt. and the community is in the ratio of 60:30:10.
  • Institutional Toilet-Toilets in all types of Government schools i.e. Primary, Upper Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary and Aanganwadis is to be constructed. Emphasis should be given to toilets for Girls in schools. Funding for school sanitation is provided by the GoI and State Govt. in the ration of 70:30. Accordingly, the central assistance per unit is restricted to 70% for a unit cost of Rs 35,000.00 (Rs 38,500.00 in case of hilly and difficult areas). Similarly, under Aanganwadi Toilets, one toilet of unit cost Rs 8,000.00 (Rs 10,000.00 in case of hilly and difficult areas) can be constructed for each Aanganwadi/Balwadi in rural areas where incentive to be given by GoI is restricted to Rs 5,600.00 (Rs 7,000.00 in case of hilly and difficult areas).
  • Solid and Liquid Waste Management- The objective of NBA is to bring about improvement in the general quality of life in rural areas. SLWM is one of the key components to address this. Under this component activities like common compost pits, low cost drainage, soakage channels/ pits, reuse of waste water, system for collection, segregation and disposal of household garbage etc are taken up. The total assistance under NBA or SLWM projects shall be worked out on the basis of total number of households in each GP, subject to maximum of Rs 7 lakh for a GP having up to 150 households, Rs 12 lakh up to 300 households, Rs 15 lakh up to 500 household and Rs 20 lakh for GPs having more than 500 households. Funding for SLWM project under NBA is provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 70:30. Any additional cost requirement is to be met with funds from the State/GP.